Late last year, the Ministry of Health included the SARS-CoV-2-induced covid vaccination in the National Immunization Calendar according to epidemiological standards. However, many people doubt the safety of the vaccine, attributing unthinkable effects and terrifying consequences to it about covid vaccination
Vaccine development process
In Russia, the gamaleya Moscow National Center for Epidemiology and Microbiology is actively developing vaccines against dangerous infections. Gamaleya. However, other research centers are also striving to produce effective and safe vaccines, such as the Vector State Research Center.
A total of about 20 preparations against coronavirus are being developed in the Russian Federation. Most of them are still at the stage of initial or preclinical trials.
Officially there are a pair of vaccines registered in Russia that are already utilized in follow – orbiter V and EpiVacCorona.
The COVID-19 vaccination: should you get it?
Most people are critical about covid vaccination. Even the opinions of experts differ on this matter. For example, there are doubts about whether it is necessary to immunize those who have had the covid disease, especially if they have had a mild form of the disease.
But their levels can drop dramatically, especially if the immune system is weak.
You can sign up for the coronavirus vaccine at this time:
People over 18 years of age;
Those who have an MHI policy;
Health workers, teachers, public sector workers, police officers, military personnel, catering workers, retailers, utility workers, volunteers, students.
You can apply at the polyclinic, through mobile applications, on the official website mos.ru.
Should I get two vaccinations: COVID-19 and flu?
In addition to covid, other viral infections are also attacking humanity, so a legitimate question arises – whether to be vaccinated against influenza at the beginning of autumn, and whether it is not dangerous to combine the Two vaccines. Experts assure that it is not advisable to simultaneously vaccinate against influenza and covid, and such experiments on volunteers have not been conducted. There should be a break of at least 30 days between these vaccines.
Which vaccines are already available?
Before figuring out where to get a vaccination against a dangerous infection, and whether absolutely everyone needs one, you should clarify which vaccines are already suitable for immunization.
Before the drug is administered to everyone, it goes through several stages of research:
Preclinical. The test is performed in animal or animal cell culture. This helps to find out if the compound is harmful to a living organism.
The first stage Tests are performed on small groups of volunteers (up to 30 people) to assess the body’s ability to develop immunity to the virus.
Second phase. The group of volunteers is boosted to 500, including the elderly and chronically ill people.
Third phase. Large-scale administration of the drug and its placebo with immunization evaluation in large population groups (over 1000 volunteers).
State control, registration, mass production, and vaccination. At the same time, further research is not stopped.
Each phase of research normally takes 2 to 5 years. If the pandemic had not threatened mankind, a reliable drug protecting against covid 19 would have been created in 10-15 years. However, the time for testing was greatly reduced, so the process of mass production and vaccination was launched already at the clinical trial stage. This is happening not only in Russia but all over the world.
Types and differences of vaccines
All vaccines against coronavirus infection produced in the Russian Federation are aimed at protecting against infection. However, each remedy differs in composition and production technology.
Rospotrebnadzor registered several types of vaccines:
Vector vaccines. They are made based on adenoviruses that conduct SARS-CoV-2 proteins inside cells to produce an immune response.
Inactivated. Traditional inoculations consisting of weakened strains of the virus that are quickly destroyed by the immune system by producing antibodies.
Based on nucleic acids. The production of drugs is based on genetically engineered reactions. Once in the cells, these formulations promote the production of viral proteins, and afterward, the formation of stable immunity.
Subunit. Artificially created peptides that are identical to the virus antigens and induce immunity.
Virus-like particles. They include protein components similar in structure to covid proteins, but do not contain their lethal genome, which makes them absolutely safe for the body.
Foreign Leading Vaccines
The world’s first vaccine against coronavirus infection was the Gam-Covid Vac (or Sputnik V). However, scientists around the world set out to develop their own life-saving vaccines and have been successful.
Many drugs have already been registered and released into mass production.
AZD1222 (the UK, University of Oxford) of the vector type. Protective efficacy ranges from 62 to 90%. Two injections are required.
BNT162b2 (Pfizer and BioNTech, Germany). A two-component drug with 95% efficacy. Two doses are required.
Ad5-nCov (CanSino, China) vector vaccine. The company has not yet provided efficacy data, as clinical trials are actively underway. A single dose is required.
NVX-CoV2373 (Novavax, USA). The drug is of the subunit type. The main advantage is that it can be combined with a flu shot from the same company. No data are yet available on efficacy against covid.
mRNA-1273 (Moderna, USA) mRNA agent with 94% efficacy.
Coronavac (Sinovac Biotech, Cina). The whole-virus drug, data on the effectiveness of which are not yet available.
Russian vaccines against coronavirus
In the Russian Federation, the most popular vaccine against covid is Gam-Covid-Vac. Official permission for mass release is confirmed by a vaccination certificate dated 11.08.20. The mass release of the vaccine begins in December 2020. Medical workers and teachers are immunized first, followed by the rest of the population.
Another vaccine is EpiVacCorona, produced by the Vector Center staff. It is certified and produced in small batches, which allows the product to undergo clinical trials on small groups of volunteers. It is a subunit type of inoculation, which consists of synthesized proteins of the virus that induce immunity to covid.
FMBA’s nucleic acid-based vaccine, and Chumakov’s vaccine with the interesting name ChuVac, are ready to begin clinical trials. So far, they have not yet been registered, nor have they been approved for mass production.
How Sputnik V and Pfizer vaccines differ
Pfizer representatives have reported the successful completion of Phase 3 studies of the BNT162b2 vaccine. Like Sputnik V, it “introduces” the immune system to the spike-like proteins of the virus. The main difference between the Russian and German vaccines lies in the way the synthesized material is delivered inside each cell. BNT162b2 uses lipid molecules, while Sputnik uses a viral vector. Otherwise, there is no difference between these drugs.
Why is the Sputnik V vaccine drawing so much criticism?
People are in no hurry to get vaccinated against the dangerous virus since Even the first and most popular drug in the clinical trial phase-only showed Effectiveness. Many foreign experts express mistrust of Sputnik because of the concealment of research protocols and successful trials.
Who cannot vaccinated against about covid vaccination?
Not everyone is vaccinated against the SARS-CoV-2 virus.
Contraindications to vaccination include:
Age under 18 years of age;
Pregnancy and lactation;
Sensitivity to the components of the vaccine;
Autoimmune diseases, including HIV, AIDS;
Acute diseases of chronic and infectious nature;
Allergic reactions in history;
Injection of another vaccine within the last 30 days.
A temporary vaccination waiver against coronavirus infection is necessary for people who have had an acute respiratory infection and other illnesses, including inflammations, chronic exacerbations. The period is 14-28 days after remission or complete recovery.
The second vaccination is not carried out if complications occurred after the first injection:
An increase in body temperature up to 40 C.
How vaccine is given
After finding out where to get the virus vaccine and get approval, the patient goes to the laboratory.
Companion V is injected intramuscularly into the deltoid or lateral greater thigh muscle.
The dry powder is diluted in 1.0 ml of water for injection, and the vial is shaken until the solid contents are completely dissolved.
Heat to body temperature and administer the vaccination. After the first dose, the second injection is given after 3 weeks.
Frequently Asked Questions About Covid Vaccination
Among the most frequent questions patients have about the vaccine are the following:
After getting vaccinated against the virus, what are the possible consequences? No one can say in detail about all the possible consequences that can develop in the body.
When can anyone get an injection? When drug is produced in sufficient quantity.
How much does the vaccine cost for a Russian citizen? The vaccine is free for Russian citizens.
Will foreign preparations be used in Russia? Such vaccinations will be available shortly. Chinese and German preparations are considered as an analog to Sputnik.
Feedback from doctors regarding mass vaccination is unambiguous – everyone who has no contraindications should be vaccinated. Vaccination at this time is the only effective way to protect against the dangerous virus. Sputnik V, as well as foreign leading drugs, 100% prevents the development of dangerous complications from about covid vaccination and therefore gives a chance for an easy course of the disease after possible infection.